I am not a great fan of most TV programming....but I am enjoying America's Got Talent and last night...this guy had a line that just about had me puking....
There is something so very stimulating about a set of tracks......
My sister JudyLynn asked me a question...about what do us retired farts do...
See? I am very busy just being me.
Ever hear of and or use Diatamaceous Earth?
A friend asked us to pick some up at a nursery in Prince george the other day.So, having done that....I needed to do some reading up on it. Wow...what interesting stuff. She just wants to use it to kill caterpillars in her yard, but some people even ingest it and farmers use it in cattle feed.....
Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms, a type of hard-shelled algae. It is used as a filtration aid, mild abrasive in products including toothpaste, mechanical insecticide, absorbent for liquids, matting agent for coatings, reinforcing filler in plastics and rubber, anti-block in plastic films, porous support for chemical catalysts, cat litter, activator in blood clotting studies, a stabilizing component of dynamite, and a thermal insulator.
- 1 Geology and occurrence
- 2 Applications
- 3 Specific varieties
- 4 Climatologic importance
- 5 Safety considerations
- 6 The age and shape of diatoms
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Geology and occurrence
FormationDiatomite forms by the accumulation of the amorphous silica (opal, SiO2·nH2O) remains of dead diatoms (microscopic single-celled algae) in lacustrine or marine sediments. The fossil remains consist of a pair of symmetrical shells or frustules.
DiscoveryIn 1836 or 1837, the peasant and goods waggoner, Peter Kasten, discovered diatomaceous earth (German: kieselgur) when sinking a well on the northern slopes of the Haußelberg hill, in the Lüneburg Heath in north Germany. Initially, it was thought that limestone had been found, which could be used as fertilizer. Alfred Nobel used the properties of diatomaceous earth in the manufacture of dynamite. The Celle engineer, Wilhelm Berkefeld, recognized its ability to filter, and developed tubular filters (known as filter candles) fired from diatomaceous earth. During the cholera epidemic in Hamburg in 1892, these Berkefeld filters were used successfully.
Extraction and storage sites in the Lüneburg Heath
- Neuohe – extraction from 1863 to 1994
- Wiechel from 1871 to 1978
- Hützel from 1876 to 1969
- Hösseringen from ca. 1880 to 1894
- Hammerstorf from ca. 1880 to 1920
- Oberohe from 1884 to 1970
- Schmarbeck from 1896 to ca. 1925
- Steinbeck from 1897 to 1928
- Breloh from 1907 to 1975
- Schwindebeck from 1913 to 1975
- Hetendorf from 1970 to 1994
Other depositsIn Germany diatomaceous earth was also extracted at Altenschlirf  on the Vogelsberg (Upper Hesse) and at Klieken  (Saxony-Anhalt).
There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to 4 metres (13 ft) thick in the nature reserve of Soos in the Czech Republic.
In Colorado and in Clark, Nevada (USA), there are deposits that are up to several hundred metres thick in places.
Sometimes diatomaceous earth is found on the surface in deserts. Research has shown that the erosion of diatomaceous earth in such areas (such as the Bodélé Depression in the Sahara) is one of the most important sources of climate-affecting dust in the atmosphere.
The commercial deposits of diatomite are restricted to Tertiary or Quaternary periods. Older deposits from as early as the Cretaceous Period are known, but are of low quality. Marine deposits have been worked in the Sisquoc Formation in Santa Barbara County, California near Lompoc and along the Southern California coast. Additional marine deposits have been worked in Maryland, Virginia, Algeria and the MoClay of Denmark. Fresh water lake deposits occur in Nevada, Oregon, Washington and California. Lake deposits also occur in interglacial lakes in the eastern US and Canada and in Europe in Germany, France, Denmark and the Czech Republic. The worldwide association of diatomite deposits and volcanic deposits suggests that the availability of silica from volcanic ash may be necessary for thick diatomite deposits.
IndustrialAlfred Nobel discovered that nitroglycerin could be made much more stable if absorbed in diatomite. This allows much safer transport and handling than nitroglycerin in its raw form. He patented this mixture as dynamite in 1867, and the mixture is also referred to as guhr dynamite.
FiltrationOne form of diatomaceous earth is used as a filter medium, especially for swimming pools. It has a high porosity, because it is composed of microscopically small, coffin-like, hollow particles. Diatomaceous earth (sometimes referred to by trademarked brand names such as Celite) is used in chemistry as a filtration aid, to filter very fine particles that would otherwise pass through or clog filter paper. It is also used to filter water, particularly in the drinking water treatment process and in fish tanks, and other liquids, such as beer and wine. It can also filter syrups, sugar, and honey without removing or altering their color, taste, or nutritional properties.
AbrasiveThe oldest use of diatomite is as a very mild abrasive and, for this purpose, it has been used both in toothpaste and in metal polishes, as well as in some facial scrubs.
Pest controlDiatomite is used as an insecticide, due to its abrasive and physico-sorptive properties. The fine powder absorbs lipids from the waxy outer layer of insects' exoskeletons, causing them to dehydrate. Arthropods die as a result of the water pressure deficiency, based on Fick's law of diffusion. This also works against gastropods and is commonly employed in gardening to defeat slugs. However, since slugs inhabit humid environments, efficacy is very low. It is sometimes mixed with an attractant or other additives to increase its effectiveness. Medical-grade diatomite is sometimes used to de-worm both animals and humans, with questionable efficacy. It is commonly used in lieu of boric acid, and can be used to help control and possibly eliminate bed bug, house dust mite, cockroach, ant and flea infestations. This material has wide application for insect control in grain storage.
In order to be effective as an insecticide, diatomaceous earth must be uncalcinated (i.e., it must not be heat-treated prior to application) and have a mean particle size below about 12 µm (i.e., food-grade— see below).
Although considered to be relatively low-risk, pesticides containing diatomaceous earth are not exempt from regulation in the United States under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act and must be registered with the Environmental Protection Agency.
AbsorbentIts absorbent qualities make it useful for spill clean-up and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control recommends it to clean up toxic liquid spills. These qualities also lend themselves to use in facial masks to absorb excess oils.
It has been employed as a primary ingredient in a type of cat litter. The type of silica used in cat litter comes from freshwater sources and does not pose a significant health risk to pets or humans.
The microscopic matrix of DE make it a highly effective desiccant; it can absorb up to six times its weight in water. It also can be used in the absorption of Ethylene Gas to reduce decay in fruits and produce. The combination of refrigeration and DE as a filter medium is one of the best ways to extend shelf life of fruits and produce commercially and in a home refrigerator. One should use a food grade, as opposed to pool grade, DE when using it as a desiccant filter near fruit & produce.
ThermalIts thermal properties enable it to be used as the barrier material in some fire resistant safes. It is also used in evacuated powder insulation for use with cryogenics. Diatomaceous earth powder is inserted into the vacuum space to aid in the effectiveness of vacuum insulation. It was used in the Classical AGA Cookers as a thermal heat barrier.
DNA purificationDiatomite (Celite) can be used for the removal of DNA in the presence of a highly concentrated chaotropic agent such as sodium iodide, guanidinium chloride and guanidinium thiocyanate. As with other silicates, the diatomites will remove double stranded DNA but not RNA or proteins. The DNA can be extracted from the diatomites using low ionic strength buffers, including water, at neutral to slightly alkaline pH. Crude diatomites of a uniform size must first be washed in a heated acid such as 5M HCl. Calcination can further improve consistency of the material, while mild caustic treatment may improve adsorption with lower levels of chaotrophs.
Use in agricultureNatural freshwater diatomaceous earth is used in agriculture for grain storage as an anticaking agent, as well as an insecticide. It is approved by the US Department of Agriculture as a feed supplement to prevent caking.
It is also used as a natural anthelmintic (dewormer). Some farmers add it to their livestock and poultry feed to prevent the caking of feed. "Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth" is widely available in agricultural feed supply stores. DE is acceptable as an anti caking agent for livestock.
HydroponicsFreshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in hydroponic gardens.
It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants, particularly as bonsai soil. Bonsai enthusiasts use it as a soil additive, or pot a bonsai tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. Like perlite, vermiculite, and expanded clay, it retains water and nutrients, while draining fast and freely, allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium.